Genitouinary (Bladder, Prostate, Renal Cell Carcinoma & Testicular)

Bladder cancer





Bladder cancer begins when health cells in the bladder lining change and grow uncontrollably.


Types of bladder cancer

  • Urothelia carcinoma accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 4% of all bladder cancers.
  • Adenocarcinoma accounts for about 2% of all bladder cancers.

There are other less common types, visit to learn more.


Questions to ask the doctor

Regular communication is important in making informed decisions about your health care. Consider asking the following questions of your health care team:

  • What type of bladder cancer do I have?
  • Can you explain my pathology report (laboratory test results) to me?
  • What stage and grade is the bladder cancer? What does this mean?
  • Is the cancer invasive? If it is, has it spread to the muscle?
  • Would you explain my treatment options?
  • What clinical trials are open to me? Where are they located, and how do I find out more about them?
  • What treatment plan do you recommend? Why?
  • Who will be part of my treatment team, and what does each member do?
  • What is the goal of each treatment? Is it to eliminate the cancer, help me feel better, or both?
  • How will this treatment affect my daily life? Will I be able to work, exercise, and perform my usual activities?
  • Could this treatment affect my sex life? If so, how and for how long?
  • Will this treatment affect my ability to become pregnant or have children?
  • What long-term side effects may be associated with my cancer treatment?
  • If I’m worried about managing the costs of cancer care, who can help me?
  • Where can I find emotional support for me and my family?
  • Whom should I call with questions or problems?

Prostate Cancer 




Fortunately, prostate cancer is one of the most treatable malignancies if it’s caught early.

Prostate cancer begins in tissues of the prostate gland. Located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum, the prostate is the male sex gland responsible for the production of semen.

Every case of prostate cancer is different. The disease may behave differently from one patient to another. By age 50, about half of all men experience small changes in the size and shape of the cells in the prostate, as part of the typical aging process. Understanding whether those changes are signs of disease and knowing your risk for developing prostate cancer are the first steps in protecting your health. 

Routine screening has improved the diagnosis of prostate cancer in recent years. In addition, evidence-based therapies may help to minimize the side effects of prostate cancer treatment, including incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

Renal Cell carcinoma

This is the most common form of kidney cancer.


There are some risk factors for the disease, including:

  • Family history of RCC
  • Dialysis treatment
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Polycystic kidney disease (an inherited disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys)
  • The genetic condition Von Hippel-Lindau disease (characterized by cysts and tumors in various organs)
  • Chronic abuse of certain prescribed and over-the-counter medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat arthritis and medications for fever and pain relief such as acetaminophen


Testicular cancer 


Although the exact causes of testicular cancer are unknown, certain risk factors have been identified.


Testicular cancer risk factors


  • Age: Approximately 90 percent of testicular cancers occur in adult men under the age of 54. Although less common, testicular cancer may occur in elderly men or children.
  • Race and ethnicity: Caucasian men have a five times greater risk of developing testicular cancer than black men, and a three times greater risk compared with Asian-American or American Indian men. Hispanic/Latino men have a risk in between that of Caucasian and Asian-American men. In addition, testicular cancer occurs more frequently in the United States and Europe, and less often in Asia or Africa.


  • Family history: Approximately 3 percent of cases of testicular cancer occur in families. Having a brother or father who has had testicular cancer may slightly increase your risk of developing the disease.


  • Cryptorchidism (an undescended testicle): Testicles develop in the abdomen of the fetus and move down into the scrotum before birth. Approximately 3 percent of males may be born with a testicle that has failed to properly descend. A procedure called orchiopexy may be performed to relocate a testicle that has failed to descend normally. Testicular cancer is several times more likely to occur in males with cryptochordism, and it is more likely to develop in the undescended testicles. Although, testicular cancer does develop in the normally descended testicle in approximately 25 percent of cases.
  • HIV infection: Some research suggests that infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may increase testicular cancer risks, especially in individuals who have developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Carcinoma in situ: This is a non-invasive form of testicular cancer that may sometimes, but not always, progress to invasive cancer. It generally does not form a mass that can be felt, or produce any symptoms. It is most frequently found incidentally in males who have undergone a biopsy of the testicle to evaluate another condition, such as infertility. Experts are divided on whether carcinoma in situ should be treated at the time of diagnosis, or watched to see if it progresses.
  • Previous history of testicular cancer: Approximately 3 - 4 percent of men who have had cancer in one testicle will later develop cancer in the other testicle.

Please refer to the NCCN Guidelines for patients.  


Call 1-844-HOPE NOW (1-844-467-3669) for more information or to schedule an appointment. 





Cumberland Radiation Associates, LLC

2114 N Jackson St

Tullahoma, TN 37388



1-844-HOPE NOW (1-844-467-3669)

Phones answered 24 hrs daily





Office Hours


Office Closed Daily between the hours of 12:00-1:30





William B. Bradford, M.D.

Board Certified Radiation Oncologist







































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